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Lana Del Rey Wiki

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Ultraviolence is the third studio album and second major-label studio album by Lana Del Rey. It was officially released on June 13, 2014, by Universal Music Group.


After having commercial success with her first major-label album, Born to Die, Del Rey re-released it accompanied by a standalone EP, Paradise, in late 2012. Del Rey presumably began working on her second studio effort around this time. She was photographed in a recording studio on January 27, 2013, in Los Angeles, California. She stated that she had been recording in Santa Monica, California to finish the record. In interviews around this time, Del Rey talked about the development of her album, playing tracks, such as "Black Beauty" and describing the album as dark and spiritual.[1]

When "Black Beauty" leaked, Del Rey said, "I do feel discouraged, yeah. I don't really know what to put on the record. But I guess I could just put them on and see what happens", leaving the fate of the song on the album uncertain. She added, she was working on Ultraviolence, "until my record got leaked last week, 'cause my life is like completely invaded. But yeah, I'm writing songs that I really like right now. They're really low-key and stripped back, all sort of West Coast-inspired."

The first announcement of the record was made at the premiere of Del Rey's short film, Tropico, at the Cinerama Dome in Hollywood on December 4, 2013. While leaving a nightclub in West Hollywood, Los Angeles, she stated to various reporters during a short interview about Ultraviolence that the album would be released on May 1, although there was no official confirmation from her label. On May 8, Fnac confirmed that the release date has been set for June 13, 2014.

On April 19, 2014, during a show at the Bill Graham Civic Auditorium in San Francisco, Del Rey revealed a new song titled "Cruel World", calling it her favorite song from the album. She performed a snippet of the song before opening the show with "Cola". On May 3, 2014, a title was revealed in an interview with a French magazine called “Money, Power & Glory”. It was later confirmed that the title was "Money Power Glory".

The track listing for the album was revealed on May 8, 2014, on Del Rey later posted it to her Facebook page. The album art for Ultraviolence was unveiled on Del Rey's official Tumblr on May 9, 2014. The black and white cover shows Del Rey standing by the open door of a car with "Ultraviolence" written in all caps in the same font as Born to Die and Paradise. Unlike her previous two releases, the photo wasn't taken at a music video shoot.

An accompanying audio commentary album, in which Del Rey breaks down the writing/recording process for each song on the album, was released on streaming services on the same day as the album. It is not available to stream in every country.

The unmastered version of the album leaked on November 10, 2020.


Del Rey was originally said to be working with the same three writers and producers as she did on Born to Die (Emile Haynie, Justin Parker and Rick Nowels). She also stated that she was working with Dan Heath, her then-boyfriend Barrie-James O'Neill, and that she wanted to work with Lou Reed.

On February 20, 2014, Del Rey posted a picture of herself and Dan Auerbach on Twitter with the caption "Me and Dan Auerbach are excited to present you Ultraviolence". Del Rey and Auerbach were rumored to be working together at Auerbach's Easy Eye Sound recording studio in Nashville, Tennessee in January and he was said to be producing her upcoming album. During May 2014, Del Rey revealed that the inclusion of Auerbach was last-minute. The two met in New York when she believed that the record was finished.

It is believed that few songs from the original production sessions made the final cut on the album as Del Rey said that she and Auerbach were initially scheduled to work together for three days but ended up spending two weeks on recording a full album. This may have been a contribution to her departure from her signature "baroque pop" sound.

Auerbach openly criticized Del Rey's label's role in the creative process of the record. He explained that the label threatened to pull the budget for the recording sessions unless they heard something from the record.[2] Del Rey and Auerbach sent the label a rough mix of what they had at the time, and representatives of the label were unhappy with what they had heard. Del Rey was pressured to meet with "the Adele producer", presumed to be Paul Epworth, under the ultimatum that they would not put out the album unless she did. According to Auerbach, after Epworth listened to the same rough mix, he was impressed, stating that the album was amazing and that he wouldn't do anything to change it. Auerbach went on to credit Epworth's approval of the album as the driving force behind the label's reversal of their previous ultimatum. Epworth would go on to produce "Black Beauty".[2] John Janick, who serves as Interscope's chairman and chief executive officer, recalled "some back and forth regarding the music" however felt that "she hit a bull's-eye" in her delivery of the album.[2]

Sound and writing[]

Del Rey stated that the album would be spiritually influenced lyrically. She has also stated that the record would be, "a little more stripped down but still cinematic and dark." On January 25, 2014, Del Rey said in a direct message on Twitter to a fan, "[Ultraviolence] is absolutely gorgeous - darker than [sic] the first - so dark it's almost unlistenable and wrong. But I love it!"

While there was no running theme when writing the album, Del Rey stated that there was a narrative, with the opening track "Cruel World" being heavily inspired by the West Coast and then the rest of the album, sonically, moving towards a more Brooklyn sound. In addition, it also features heavy guitars and jazz tones.

Writing for the album began nearly two years after the release of Born to Die, but Del Rey felt there was no real substance until November 2013 when she sat down with melodies and lyrics she had been working on and wrote the album. Del Rey recorded the album with Rick Nowels over three weeks in Electric Lady Studios in New York. By the end of the session, the album was complete. However, shortly after Dan Auerbach and Del Rey met in a club and decided to work together. Two weeks later, Del Rey rerecorded the entire album with Auerbach using a Shure SM-58 microphone and a live band. In terms of the title, Del Rey stated it doesn't necessarily intend to reference the novel and film A Clockwork Orange, which is often credited as coining the term. Rather, Del Rey chose the title because she liked how it sounded.


Del Rey revealed the official album artwork for Ultraviolence on May 9, 2014, on the same day that the official tracklist was revealed. The cover art was shot by Neil Krug during a promotional photoshoot for the album, and it was designed by Mat Waitland at Big Active. The deluxe edition artwork is very similar to the standard artwork except the title text is much smaller. Urban Outfitters stores sold an exclusive LP version of the record with alternate artwork, that was also photographed by Neil Krug.

Release and promotion[]

On December 4, 2013, at the premiere for Tropico, Del Rey stated, "I really just wanted us all to be together so I could try and visually close out my chapter before I release the new record, Ultraviolence". During February 2014, she suggested that the record would be released on May 1, but on May 5, at her concert in Montreal, Del Rey told the crowd it would be released in June. On May 14, the official release date was finally revealed.

Ultraviolencedeluxeboxset transparent

A day before its release in Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland on June 13, 2014, Ultraviolence leaked through people buying copies a day early. The album was then released on June 16 in France, the UK, and Italy, then June 17 in Canada, the US, Spain, and Mexico and finally June 18 in Japan.

Various editions of the album were sold, including standard, deluxe, and a "super deluxe" boxset. The Ultraviolence Deluxe Boxset contained a deluxe 2LP picture disc set of Ultraviolence, a deluxe version of Ultraviolence on a CD digipack, and four 12" x 12" art prints. The cover of the exclusive set featured the album title printed in black foil. Currently, Ultraviolence is the only major-label album by Del Rey not to feature her signature name in large type on the front cover of the album.


Lana Del Rey - Ultraviolence (Album Trailer)

On June 18, 2014, a trailer was released to YouTube and Vevo to promote the album. It featured snippets of all the promotional singles as well as unused shots from the "West Coast" music video, similar to the iTunes trailer, which was released on May 27, 2014.

Del Rey did not promote the album with television performances. Instead, she relied on a couple of print and radio interviews, music videos, and social media. In September, she first canceled two private concerts for Virgin Radio in Paris, and then the rest of her European appearances, including an appearance on BBC Radio 1's Live Lounge, due to illness.


Main article: Endless Summer Tour

On December 1, 2014, six months after the release of Ultraviolence, Del Rey announced the Endless Summer Tour, a formal North American headlining concert tour to further promote the album. Along with this announcement, Del Rey confirmed that Courtney Love would be opening for the tour. On April 1, 2015, Del Rey announced that Grimes would be opening for the second half of dates. The tour began on May 7, 2015, in The Woodlands, Texas, and concluded on June 16, 2015, in West Palm Beach, Florida.


"West Coast" premiered on BBC Radio 1 on April 14, 2014; the song was then released as a single on iTunes and posted to Del Rey's Vevo channel. It received critical acclaim and performed modestly on the charts, entering the Top 40 in many countries. The official music video was released on May 7.

In the weeks before the release of Ultraviolence, three promotional singles were released. "Shades of Cool" was announced to be the album's first promotional single and was released May 26. A music video was released on June 17. "Ultraviolence" premiered on BBC Radio 1 on June 4; the song was then released as a single on iTunes and posted to Vevo. Del Rey announced via Instagram that "Brooklyn Baby" would be the album's third promotional single. It premiered on June 8.

A remix EP for "Black Beauty" was exclusively released on the November 21, 2014, on Universal's official German page, making it the third official single from the album.[3]

Critical reception[]

Professional ratings
Aggregate scores
Source Rating
Metacritic 74/100
Review scores
Source Rating
AllMusic 4/5 starsStar fullStar fullStar fullStar empty[4]
Billboard 4/5 starsStar fullStar fullStar fullStar empty[5]
Clash 7/10 starsStar fullStar fullStar fullStar fullStar fullStar fullStar emptyStar emptyStar empty[6]
Consequence of Sound A[7]
Entertainment Weekly A[8]
The Guardian 4/5 starsStar fullStar fullStar fullStar empty[9]
Los Angeles Times 3/4 starsStar fullStar fullStar empty[10]
Pitchfork 7.1/10[11]
Rolling Stone 3Star fullStar fullStar halfStar empty[12]
Slant Magazine 3Star fullStar fullStar halfStar empty [13]

Upon release, Ultraviolence was met with a positive reaction from most critics. According to Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album currently holds a score of 74/100 based on 35 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Writing in The Guardian, Alexis Petridis wrote that "Every chorus clicks, the melodies are uniformly beautiful, and they soar and swoop, the better to demonstrate Del Rey's increased confidence in her voice. It's all so well done that the fact that the whole album proceeds at the same, somnambulant pace scarcely matters". Kyle Anderson of Entertainment Weekly wrote about Del Rey's aesthetic, stating, "Kubrick would have loved Del Rey — a highly stylized vixen who romanticizes fatalism to near-pornographic levels, creating fantastically decadent moments of film-noir melodrama. It's an aesthetic that demands total commitment from both artist and listener, and it would be difficult to buy into if she didn't deliver such fully realized cinema." He also added, "Ultraviolence masterfully melds those elements, and completes the redemption narrative of a singer whose breakout-to-backlash arc on 2012's Born to Die made her a cautionary tale of music-industry hype." Tony Clayton-Lea of The Irish Times noted, "What seems certain is that whatever she really is, or whatever she does in her chosen milieu, Del Ray is the best at it." Jim Farber of New York Daily News wrote, "Ultimately, she's milking classic male fantasies of the sad Marilyn Monroe, the babe in distress who can only be saved by you - and your dollars." Critic Jamie Hamilton of DIY magazine reviewed the album on a positive note stating, "Most songs on Ultraviolence link up with a bluesy smoke of a sound. Whereas ‘Born to Die’ flirted with gloss and glitz, this is the sound of Lana hitting the road. Producer Dan Auerbach in tow, most of the time the tempo doesn’t get any quicker than a Kolo Touré sprint." Justin Charity of Complex magazine noted, "Ultraviolence is a blues affair, with moody innuendo spilling bloody and bold as the opening sequence to a vintage Bond saga." The critic also called it 'intimate', 'drunk driven'.[14] Mike Diver for Clash Music commented, "For all its lows-inspired highs, Ultraviolence is not quite the complete picture. It goes so far as to reflect, albeit perhaps coincidentally, this era: black and white, the color has to come from the performance, not the film it’s captured on." The critic gave a bottom line for Del Rey—"A bruised beauty, just short of classic status..."[15] According to Metacritic, Ultraviolence was the 13th most frequently mentioned album in critic's "year-end" lists.[16]

Year-end lists[]

Publication Accolade Rank
Billboard The 14 Best Pop Albums of 2014[17] 14
Cosmopolitan The 20 Best Albums of 2014[18] 7
Dazed The Top 20 Albums of 2014[19] 3
Digital Spy Digital Spy's Best Albums of the Year 2014: 15-1[20] 14
Entertainment Weekly 10 Best Albums of 2014[21] 4
Gorilla vs. Bear Gorilla vs. Bear's Albums of 2014[22] 10
Los Angeles Times Randall Roberts' Best Pop Albums of 2014[23] N/A
Mojo Mojo's 50 Best Albums of 2014[24] 40
NME NME's Top 50 Albums of 2014[25] 4
NPR Ken Tucker's Top 9 Albums of 2014[26] 4
Rolling Stone 50 Best Albums of 2014[27] 7
San Jose Mercury News Top 10 Albums of 2014[28] 10
Slant Magazine The 25 Best Albums of 2014[29] 3
Spin The 20 Best Pop Albums of 2014[30] 5
Stereogum The 50 Best Albums of 2014[31] 12
The Boston Globe James Reed's 2014 Best Album Picks[32] 1
Time Top 10 Best Albums of 2014[33] 6

Commercial performance[]

On June 18, 2014, Billboard estimated that Ultraviolence would sell approximately 175-180,000 copies in first-week United States sales.[34] The album debuted at number-one on the Billboard 200, with sales of 182,000, making it Lana Del Rey's first number-one album in the United States.[35] Worldwide, the album sold over 356,000 units in its first week and debuted at number-one on Mediatraffic's Global Album Chart. By the end of 2014, the album had sold over 1.2 million copies.

The album also debuted on the UK Albums Chart at number one which is her first album to top that chart. Entirely, without much promotion of the album, Ultraviolence has made a good commercial performance universally with an exception of Asia. Overall, Ultraviolence debuted at number one in twelve countries and the Top 5 of eight other countries. Ultraviolence was certified Gold in Canada on June 25,[36] and Silver in the United Kingdom on June 27.[37]

Track listing[]

Standard edition
No. TitleWriter(s)Producer(s) Length
1. "Cruel World"  Lana Del Rey, Blake StranathanDan Auerbach 6:39
2. "Ultraviolence"  Del Rey, Dan HeathAuerbach 4:11
3. "Shades of Cool"  Del Rey, Rick NowelsAuerbach 5:42
4. "Brooklyn Baby"  Del Rey, Barrie-James O'NeillAuerbach 5:52
5. "West Coast"  Del Rey, NowelsAuerbach 4:17
6. "Sad Girl"  Del Rey, NowelsAuerbach, Nowels (vocals) 5:18
7. "Pretty When You Cry"  Del Rey, StranathanDel Rey, Stranathan, Lee Foster 3:54
8. "Money Power Glory"  Del Rey, Greg KurstinKurstin 4:31
9. "Fucked My Way Up to the Top"  Del Rey, HeathHeath, Emile Haynie 3:32
10. "Old Money"  Del Rey, Heath, Robbie FitzsimmonsHeath 4:31
11. "The Other Woman"  Jessie Mae RobinsonAuerbach 3:02
Total length:

Scrapped tracks[]

You can find the full Ultraviolence outtake list here.

Because the album was reworked with a new producer and a few demos were leaked during the writing sessions, several tracks that were written for this album did not make the final cut. "Angels Forever, Forever Angels" was one of the first acknowledged songs to be intended for a new record. Unfortunately, it was leaked on July 18, 2013, along with a "Black Beauty" demo, from Nowels' website. Del Rey stated that "Black Beauty" was an important track for the album and its leaking caused the song to have an uncertain fate, but in the end, it was relegated as a bonus track.

During a track-by-track commentary, Del Rey stated that she had a song called "Melancholia" that was later reworked into "Ultraviolence". The original "Melancholia" demo leaked in full on March 28, 2023.

"Fine China" and "Say Yes to Heaven" were registered on the APRA AMCOS website after Ultraviolence was released, making fans speculate that they were outtakes. Not much was known about the two songs until the summer of 2016 when snippets were leaked and it was revealed that both songs were recorded in 2013 during the same session with a few important songs from Ultraviolence like "Shades of Cool", "Sad Girl" and "Is This Happiness". It's unclear why they did not make the final cut but it was speculated that they did not fit the sound of the album after it was reworked with Auerbach. They are also registered on PPL Repertoire.

A previously unheard outtake was the song "Your Girl". Fans did not know about the track's existence until a person acknowledged it and leaked some snippets during the same time that "Fine China" and "Say Yes to Heaven" snippets were posted. The song features a similar sound to the tracks from the final tracklist but it may have been cut out in the favor of another song. No registration was found for this song until it was found on PPL Repertoire months after the first snippets were leaked.

"Wait for Life" was another song meant for Ultraviolence. Del Rey and Haynie met at his studio in New York for an album session but instead, they talked about relationships, and spontaneously recorded a demo. Haynie kept the track and released it as a promotional single for his album, We Fall.

"I Can Fly" was recorded during the same session with "Fine China", "Say Yes to Heaven" and "Your Girl" and the rest of the tracks that made the cut ("Shades of Cool", "Sad Girl" and "Is This Happiness") making it an outtake from Ultraviolence. The song was not featured on the final tracklist but was released as a soundtrack for Big Eyes movie.

"I Talk to Jesus" is a track recorded in 2014, according to its registration on PPL Repertoire. Fans have been speculating that it was written for Ultraviolence since "Wait for Life" was also recorded in the same year and meant for the album, but no clear information about this is known. This track also has a similar sound to the songs which made the final Ultraviolence tracklist.

"Don't Stop" and "Queen of Hearts" were recorded in early 2013 and may be some of the first songs intended for the album. However, because the timeline of the entire writing process was heavily altered by various events and people, Del Rey completely abandoned this musical and sounding direction and started experimenting with other genres for this record. Possibly, the same thing happened with the other two tracks, "Cherry Blossom" and "Nectar of the Gods", which are speculated to have been recorded during the earliest sessions of the album, since they date back to 2013.

"Living Legend" was also recorded in 2013 around the time of the Ultraviolence recording sessions and was teased multiple times throughout the album era (such as Facebook posts and the Ultraviolence album booklet), but did not appear on the album's final tracklist. Ultimately, the song was officially released on Del Rey's seventh major-label studio album, Blue Banisters.

"Earthquakes" is speculated to have been recorded during the early sessions for Ultraviolence. The track was co-written with Barrie-James O'Neill. Another track made with O'Neill and thought to have been meant for the album was "Unidentified Flying Bill", however, a reliable insider later debunked these rumors.[S 1]

"If You Lie Down with Me" is another previously unknown outtake of the album, recorded in 2014. It was co-written with her then-boyfriend Barrie-James O'Neill. It remained unknown up until its inclusion on her seventh major-label studio album, Blue Banisters, where it's presumed to have been reworked. It was one of the six outtakes to be released officially, along with fellow Ultraviolence outtakes "Cherry Blossom", "Nectar of the Gods", and "Living Legend".

Another song, called "Cult Leader", is said to have been recorded in early 2013 Ultraviolence sessions and produced by Rick Nowels.

"Madly" and "Dragonslayer" are also speculated to have been meant for the album. Both songs were recorded in 2013.

A later version of "I Don't Wanna Go" titled "Lake Placid" was made for inclusion on Ultraviolence, but ultimately didn't make the cut.

"80s Baby", "Connection" and "The Devil" are voice memos which are thought to have been early ideas for Ultraviolence tracks. All three of them leaked on April 1, 2023.

"Driving in Cars with Boys", originally meant for Born to Die, was revisited in 2014 and considered for inclusion on Ultraviolence.

Some other outtakes from the album are rumored to exist, they currently remain unknown and unleaked. It was rumored by an insider that those tracks do not have the same sound as the rest of the album. That could mean that they were recorded in early sessions for the album.

In some photos of Del Rey in the studio recording Ultraviolence, the phrase "Trans-Am" could be spotted in her lyric book. It is unknown if it was meant to be the name of a song, or something else.


Digital booklet[]

iTunes Deluxe (UK)
Art originals
Special edition credits

Art prints shot by Neil Krug[]

Charts and certifications[]

Weekly charts[]

Chart (2014) Peak
Argentine Albums (CAPIF) 4
Australian Albums (ARIA) 1
Austrian Albums (Ö3 Austria) 5
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Flanders) 1
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Wallonia) 1
Brazil Albums (ABPD) 3
Canadian Albums (Billboard) 1
Chinese Albums (Sino Chart) 4
Croatian International Albums (HDU) 7
Czech Albums (ČNS IFPI) 4
Danish Albums (Hitlisten) 1
Dutch Albums (MegaCharts) 5
Finnish Albums (Suomen virallinen lista) 1
French Albums (SNEP) 2
German Albums (Offizielle Top 100) 3
Greek Albums (IFPI) 1
Hungarian Albums (MAHASZ) 6
Irish Albums (IRMA) 2
Italian Albums (FIMI) 2
Japanese Albums (Oricon) 50
Korean Albums (Gaon) 28
Mexican Albums (AMPROFON) 3
New Zealand Albums (RMNZ) 1
Mexican Albums Chart 2
Norwegian Albums (VG-lista) 1
Polish Albums (ZPAV) 1
Portuguese Albums (AFP) 3
Scottish Albums (OCC) 1
Spanish Albums (PROMUSICAE) 1
Swedish Albums (Sverigetopplistan) 6
Swiss Albums (Schweizer Hitparade) 2
Taiwanese Western Albums (G-Music) 7
UK Albums (Official Chart Company) 1
US Billboard 200 1
US Vinyl Albums (Billboard) 1
World (United World Album Chart)[38] 1

Year-end charts[]

Chart (2014) Position
Australian Albums (ARIA) 31
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Flanders) 47
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Wallonia) 21
Canadian Albums (Billboard) 49
Germany (Official German Charts) 27
Italian Albums (FIMI) 58
Mexican Albums (AMPROFON) 34
New Zealand (Recorded Music NZ) 33
Polish Albums (ZPAV) 23
Swiss Albums (Swiss Hitparade) 16
UK Albums (Official Chart Company) 53
US Billboard 200 43
World (United World Album Chart)[39] 21


Region Certification Sales/shipments
Australia (ARIA) Gold 35,000^
Austria (IFPI Austria) Gold 7,500*
Brazil (Pro-Música Brasil) Platinum 40,000*
Canada (Music Canada) Gold 40,000^
France (SNEP) Platinum 100,000*
Germany (BVMI) Gold 100,000^
Italy (FIMI) Gold 25,000*
Italy (FIMI) Gold 25,000*
Mexico (AMPROFON) Gold 30,000^
United Kingdom (BPI) Gold 100,000^
United States (RIAA) Platinum 1,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone
xunspecified figures based on certification alone


Credits adapted from the liner notes of Ultraviolence.


  • Lana Del Rey - vocals (all tracks); background vocals (tracks 2, 5)
  • Dan Auerbach - background vocals (track 14)
  • Seth Kaufman - background vocals (tracks 4, 14)
  • Alfreda McCrary Lee - background vocals (track 2)
  • Ann McCrary - background vocals (track 2)
  • Regina McCrary - background vocals (track 2)


  • Dan Auerbach - claps (track 1); electric guitar (tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 14); shaker, 12-string acoustic guitar (track 5); synthesizer (tracks 5, 6, 11, 14)
  • Collin Dupuis - drum programming (tracks 2, 3, 9, 14); synthesizer (track 6)
  • Brian Griffin - drums (tracks 6, 13)
  • Ed Harcourt - piano (track 12)
  • Tom Herbert - bass guitar (track 12)
  • Seth Kaufman - synthesizer, claps (track 1); electric guitar (tracks 2, 4, 6, 9); omnichord (track 3); percussion (track 4)
  • Nikolaj Torp Larsen - philicorda, mellotron (track 12)
  • Leon Michaels - claps (track 1); synthesizer (tracks 1, 2, 9, 11, 14); piano (tracks 2, 9); mellotron (tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11, 14); tambourine, percussion, tenor saxophone (track 4, 11)
  • Nick Movshon - claps (track 1); bass guitar (tracks 1, 2, 3, 5, 9); upright bass (track 4); drums (tracks 4, 5, 6, 11, 14)
  • Rick Nowels - piano (track 12)
  • Russ Pahl - pedal steel guitar (tracks 1, 2, 4, 9, 11); electric guitar (tracks 3, 14); acoustic guitar (tracks 4, 6)
  • Blake Stranathan - guitar (tracks 7, 13)
  • Pablo Tato - guitar (track 12)
  • Leo Taylor - drums (track 12)
  • Kenny Vaughan - electric guitar (tracks 1, 2, 3, 9, 11); acoustic guitar (track 4); synthesizer, mellotron (track 6)
  • Maximilian Weissenfeldt - claps (track 1); drums (tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9)

Technical and production[]

  • Lana Del Rey - production (tracks 7, 13)
  • Dan Auerbach - production (tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 14); mixing (tracks 2, 14)
  • Julian Burg - additional engineering (track 8)
  • Vira Byramji - assistant engineer (track 13)
  • John Davis - mastering (all tracks)
  • Collin Dupuis - engineering (tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 14); mixing (tracks 2, 14)
  • Paul Epworth - production (track 12)
  • Lee Foster - production (tracks 7, 13)
  • Milton Gutiérrez - engineering (track 10)
  • Dan Heath - production, arrangement (track 10)
  • Phil Joly - engineering (track 7); tracking engineer, mixing (track 13)
  • Greg Kurstin - production, mixing (track 8)
  • Neil Krug - photography
  • Mat Maitland - design
  • Matthew McGaughey - orchestration (track 10)
  • Kieron Menzies - vocal engineering (tracks 6, 12)
  • Rick Nowels - vocal production (tracks 6, 12); production (track 13)
  • Alex Pasco - additional engineering (track 8)
  • Robert Orton - mixing (tracks 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12)
  • Myan Soffia - additional photography
  • Blake Stranathan - production (tracks 7, 16)
  • Matt Wiggins - engineering (track 12)
  • Andy Zisakis - assistant engineer (track 10)


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  1. This is speculation and should not be relied upon. It has not been confirmed by any official sources, but has been reported by BlackoutZone, who is considered a reliable insider by the community.
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